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A case study on how I secured two WordPress websites for a multinational bank, from start to finish.
Table of Contents
- Part 1. Organizational Level Security Policies & Cyber Hygiene
- Part 2. Fundamental Website Security
- Part 3. Server Hardening and WordPress Hardening
- Part 4. Brute Force Protection
- Part 5. DoS / DDoS Protection
- Part 6. Preventing Injection and Cross-Site Scripting (XSS) Attacks
- Part 7. Content-Security-Policy (CSP)
- Part 8. Security Monitoring
- Part 9. Emergency Action Plan
- Part 10. Launch and Maintain
- Final Thoughts
We often get asked about WordPress security. What steps should I take to secure my website? Should I use a security plugin? Which security plugin? Should I use Cloudflare?
All good questions, but as WordPress websites and hosting environments can vary wildly, there’s no answer that will apply to all situations (and there’s also more than one way to get the job done).
In this post/article/guide, we’re going to look at one of my own previous projects – a series of landing pages for a multinational bank. We figured this would make for a pretty interesting case study on how to lock down and secure a WordPress site from start to finish. As you can imagine, security was incredibly important for this project, and in this article we’ll look at the different security concerns I prepared for, and how I put all of it into practice.
Below covers the key considerations that you can use to implement your own security plan for all of your own projects.
If you’re looking to delve deeper into the threats lurking beyond your website’s borders, this article will serve as a good starting point.
The Website: Develop a set of 4 landing pages across two WordPress installations to promote personal and business-related banking assistance/services during the coronavirus crisis.
Hosting: This was later added to the scope when their IT team came back and told us they needed 3 months to prepare. That was ridiculous, and we didn’t expect the campaign to last longer than 2 months at the time, so after some discussion I took on hosting the websites as well (including ongoing maintenance and DNS management).
With the exception of the Content Security Policy (more in part 7), provisioning a brand new server, importing the two websites, and implementing the security setup outlined below took a grand total of approximately 35 minutes.
Security Strategy: Prevention and Detection/Recovery
When planning your security strategy you may find it useful to split your plan into two parts. The first part is Prevention, and the second is Detection/Recovery.
Prevention is everything you implement to keep your websites secure in the first place. The bulk of this article is about prevention, and includes practices such as implementing a web application firewall (WAFs), server and application hardening, and security hygiene.
Detection/Recovery is emergency planning for the worst-case scenario. If despite all your efforts your site still gets hacked, how will you detect it? And how will you minimise the risks of reputation damage and more, and get the site cleaned up and back in business as quickly as possible?
DNS, Server, and Application Level Security
When approaching WordPress security, the earlier in the DNS > Server > Application chain you can implement security the better.
If I can block attacks at the DNS level, then they never even reach my server. If I can block attacks at the server level, then they’re immediately dropped and never reach my applications (applications = WordPress websites in our case). By approaching your security this way you can prevent many different types of attacks before they even get the chance to compromise your site (as they won’t be able to get to it in the first place).
A 2021 Guide to WordPress Security from Start to Finish
Part 1. Organizational Level Security Policies & Cyber Hygiene
Good security starts with simple, basic security policies at the business/organizational level. This extends beyond just website security and is important for all aspects of business.
Exploiting website level vulnerabilities or “Mr Robot’ing” into a server aren’t the only way to gain access to a website. Malware on a company computer could theoretically scrape usernames and passwords or grant backdoor access to a hacker who could steal all kinds of information. Banks, not surprisingly, have this down pretty well, but most businesses do not.
The idea behind the phrase “Cyber Hygiene” is that just like you maintain good general hygiene habits day-in-day-out (taking a shower, brushing your teeth etc), you should take the same approach to your IT and online systems “health”.
This includes ALL security as a whole.
I can enforce a strong password, but that’s not going to help if my client stores it in a text file on their desktop, and someone steals their computer. Or even worse, sticks a post-it note with their username and password on their workstation monitor.
A little cyber hygiene goes a long way. In fact, research conducted by the University of Portsmouth for the UK government suggested that 80% of the cyber-attacks affecting businesses in the UK could have been prevented by the implementation of some basic security controls. It would be surprising if the same wasn’t also true for most other countries throughout the world.
This is a conversation that I believe needs to be had with every client. Helping clients with their security will help you avoid potential future hassle, and it’s a good trust builder when you take on new projects.
Avoid Public WiFi Networks
Your local coffee shop WiFi network is not secure, and neither is any personal data such as passwords, credit card numbers, client communications etc etc. If using a public WiFi network to access your websites (or do anything of consequence), purchase and use a VPN to encrypt your information and keep yourself and your clients safe. Digg.com always has deals for super cheap.
Part 2. Fundamental Website Security
There are a few fundamentals that every website should follow. Let’s take a look at these first.
1. Use a Quality Theme and Well Supported Plugins
I’ve always tried to be cautious of the way I build websites from both a security and longevity perspective. Good security starts from the ground up, and I built these websites using well-supported plugins and a well-supported theme.
Here I used the Genesis Framework with a custom child theme, and until very recently I’ve used this combination for almost every website I’ve built since 2012. It’s fast, very secure, and regularly updated. It’s a solid choice for any WordPress website and is the go-to theme for thousands of WordPress developers.
Side note: There are many really great free themes, but there’s also no incentive for the developers of many of these themes to continue supporting them, which makes me nervous when thinking about a project’s longevity.
I’ve personally always felt very reassured about using Genesis and they’ve always invested in top-notch security vetting. For the websites that you create, you may want to consider a premium theme, or at least the free version of a premium theme.
I also used a total of 9 plugins: –
- All in One WP Migration
- All in One Backblaze B2 Extension
- Elementor Pro
- GridPane Redis Object Cache
- Nginx Helper
- WP Fail2Ban
- WP 2FA
2 backup plugins, 2 design plugins, 2 caching plugins, and 3 security plugins.
Using 3 security plugins probably sounds like overkill, but each of these serves different functions which we’ll dig into below.
And yep, I used Elementor.
Never use nulled plugins. Never ever ever.
For SMTP I’m using the GridPane SendGrid integration. This is a super simple mu-plugin that tells WordPress to send transactional emails via my SendGrid account.
An additional plugin we would recommend as of WP 5.6 is Jeff Starr’s Disable Application Passwords plugin. If you don’t require this function, you’re better off disabling it. I’ve disabled this directly via my Genesis child theme, but this plugin is a simpler solution. You may want to consider bookmarking it, or adding it to your bundles if you’re a GridPane client.
2. Limited Administrator Access
There’s no upside to handing out admin access to people who simply don’t need it. The average person isn’t particularly security conscious, and the more you hand out access, the more insecure your websites become as a consequence. It also increases the chances of someone breaking something and no developer needs that kind of hassle.
The actual security term for this is “The Principle of Least Privilege“.
WordPress comes with multiple different levels of access that can help you give people the access they need to do their work, and at the same time limit their ability to do damage.
3. Enforce Strong Passwords and Appropriate Usernames
This applies everywhere, not just on your WordPress website. If you have weak security on your computer or computer systems as a whole, this opens up security vulnerabilities that could compromise your business (and WordPress site).
Usernames such as “admin” or “administrator” are asking for trouble. These are common targets that bots will try to exploit, and are not appropriate for production-ready websites in 2021.
Usually, I try to help other clients implement a strong password policy in their business. As I mentioned earlier, this is a great trust-building exercise, and it legitimately helps keep them safe over the long term.
This is a must in modern business as weak passwords are a leading cause in all types of hacks. It wasn’t a concern for this particular client, but it is for most other businesses I’ve worked with over the years and it’s a good practice to build into your sales process.
Also, if a client ever does get hacked and you haven’t had a proper conversation about security, even if it was entirely their fault, they’re unlikely to see it that way. That’s a difficult thing for a relationship to recover from.
Here are the top 10 most used passwords according to: https://www.ncsc.gov.uk/news/most-hacked-passwords-revealed-as-uk-cyber-survey-exposes-gaps-in-online-security
(23 million users…)
So what is a strong password?
Guidance on this varies, but generally, the length of the password is the most important thing. The longer the better. The character set is also a factor. The use of special characters is a lesser factor, but also still a good idea – at least according to the sources I’ve read, but I’d definitely encourage you to research further.
“Qwerty123456” is a terrible password.
“IloveridngthroughtheforestonaMOOse3timesaday?!?!floopAdoop” is a very strong password.
As is: “5J+UDLnWd%N?_dxxCZ2W4JrYGnJ9TqmPBg5AbQN?”
Funnily enough, I once consulted with an organisation whose password was “11”. No shit. They sent me the username and password in their second email like it was totally normal (I had not asked them for it). I’m still shocked to this day that they hadn’t already been hacked as a result, but maybe it’s such a ridiculous password that it was never attempted. Still, you should NEVER, EVER do this, obviously.
There are multiple strong password generators online that you can use as the starting point of your passwords.
4. Don’t reuse passwords on multiple sites
Security breaches, unfortunately, are not uncommon – some huge companies over the past few years have got in trouble for data breaches. These include companies like Adobe, LinkedIn, eBay, and Yahoo.
Also, unfortunately, using the same password for every website is absolutely common and seems to be becoming more of a problem day by day. If you or your clients are using the same password for your/their WordPress website, and another company experiences a breach, this now becomes a security vulnerability that could easily have been prevented. What’s worse is you may never see this one coming, or figure out how it happened after the fact.
It’s also entirely possible that it’s already happened and you don’t know about it. If you’ve never ran a password check before, you should head over to haveibeenpwned.com to see if any of your accounts have been reported in a data breach (or several).
You may also wish to enforce changing passwords on a semi-regular basis, but here you have balance causing issues for your clients vs actually helping them. This is more likely to be a case by case scenario depending on the industry/client.
5. Two Factor Authentication (2FA)
2FA is an easy, effective way to lock down a site. No matter how secure a password is, there’s always a chance that it may be discovered. 2FA ensures that it’s impossible for an attacker to brute force their way into a website without both the password and your authentication method.
This is good practice and we highly recommend that everyone use it. For this, my preference is Google Authenticator, which can also be used with Authy. This is of course handled by the freely available WP 2FA – Two-factor Authentication for WordPress plugin, which is one of the three security plugins I’ve installed.
I’ve also considered the slimmed-down Wordfence plugin “Wordfence Login Security“. This also seems like a solid, free option.
6. A+ Grade SSL certificates
Provisioning FREE A+ grade SSL certificates is a breeze on GridPane, and both sites are of course using SSL. Most quality web hosts will enable you to do this easily as well.
Site note: Cloudflare is my go-to DNS provider. I’ve used them for many years, and I’m a big fan of their service. GridPane has a Cloudflare integration built right into the dashboard, and using this I was able to quickly and easily provision SSL certificates before setting the websites live.
Part 3. Server Hardening and WordPress Hardening
GridPane takes care of a lot of security out of the box. You can learn more about the specifics in this knowledge base article: Default GridPane Security and Additional Options
I’ll be covering all of this below to share with you exactly what I’ve done to ensure these websites are as secure as possible.
All GridPane servers are hardened during the provisioning process. Ports are locked down, and Fail2Ban and the Linux UFW (uncomplicated firewall) are preconfigured. Access is SSH Key restricted and server security updates are automatically taken care of. We take security very seriously here at GridPane, and servers are secured immediately upon creation.
SFTP and SSH access only
Secure server connections only. No FTP. No exceptions.
Some hosts still allow regular, insecure FTP connections, but in these cases, there’s usually little you can do about it. If this applies to you, you may want to contact your provider to see what kind of security measures they have in place to keep you safe. FTP compromises are rare, but there’s really no place for it in 2021. SFTP does exactly the same thing, but it does it securely.
GridPane isolates websites by assigning them different system users on their creation. This is extremely important, as without this if one website were to get hacked/infected with malware, it could infect all other websites on that same system user – it’s one of the [many] major drawbacks of many, many shared hosting providers (and also multisites).
These are known as cross-site contamination attacks, and cause a world of hurt on servers with many websites all on the same system user, compromising all of them in short order.
Keeping each site separated keeps them safe from each other. In my case, this server itself is also only used for the bank, and no other sites are hosted on it.
Secure file and directory permissions by default
GridPane automatically sets files and folders with secure READ, WRITE and EXECUTE permissions. These permissions determine who is allowed to do what, and loose permissions leave your websites and servers open to attack.
GridPane automatically sets file and directory permissions correctly and provides a self-help tool that will help you reset any of your website’s permissions to ensure that any website you move to GridPane it’s all set correctly.
Learn more here: https://wordpress.org/support/article/changing-file-permissions/
New websites are always provisioned on an up-to-date version of PHP. For these websites I’m using PHP 7.4. PHP 7.3 would have been fine and is sometimes the better choice as not all plugins and themes play well with it. Mine do though, so 7.4 it is.
This is an important one. PHP is fundamental to WordPress, and if the version you’re using is out-of-date, it means it’s no longer actively supported and there are no more security patches coming.
Up-to-date PHP versions also offer significant performance improvements as well. You should be using either 7.3 or 7.4 at this point in time. 7.4 is faster, but not all plugins play well with it (not a good sign for that plugins longevity). 7.3 is stable and faster than all its predecessors. If you have a plugin or theme that doesn’t work with PHP 7.3, it’s time to change things up.
HTTP Strict Transport Security
This needs to be implemented in combination with an SSL certificate.
GridPane, implements HTTP Strict Transport Security (once an SSL certificate is provisioned), by automatically adding this header to all websites:
This protects against Man-In-The-Middle (MITM) attacks and cookie hijacking by forcing the use of HTTPS and preventing sensitive data exposure.
The “31536000” at the end is the number of seconds in a year. This instructs browsers to only access the server over HTTPS for the next year.
Secure usernames and passwords by default
The websites both had secure login credentials from the moment they were created. One other user has editor access so that she can make tweaks without needing me – strong username and password of course.
Disable directory browsing / System file protection
GridPane automatically prevents anyone from seeing any of the WordPress installation files (including all PHP files and dotfiles like .user.ini) and disallows access to readme.html, readme.txt, install.php, and wp-includes.
The reason this is important is that it prevents sensitive data exposure which can be used in an attack against your website. The less information a hacker has to work with, the harder it will be to attack your site. For example, hiding your WordPress version ensures that you can’t be targeted specifically for the version of WordPress you’re using.
This technically falls under security by obscurity, which I regularly see people argue that this isn’t really security. However, attackers can and will target WordPress versions based on their known vulnerabilities, and hiding your WordPress version not only makes this more difficult, but it also gives tools like Fail2Ban the opportunity to evaluate this behaviour and ban accordingly (more on Fail2Ban in part 4).
GridPane stores the wp-config.php file one level up from the htdocs directory. The wp-config.php file contains database usernames and passwords along with other sensitive information. By default, it’s kept hidden and protected.
This WordPress core file is used to install WordPress, but WordPress is already installed so it’s redundant. It’s also used by bots to identify a site as WordPress, so I’ve blocked it.
Block WordPress OPML Links Functionality
WordPress allows links to be imported or exported using the OPML format via the wp-links-opml.php file. Hitting this page presents an XML output and details of a WordPress installation. Some bad bots will try this page when exploring your site for information.
Neither website is using it so I’ve blocked this function at the server level.
Part 4. Brute Force Protection
A brute force attack is an attempt to gain access to your website by systematically entering all possible passwords until the correct one is found and they’re able to login. It is literally sheer, relentless brute force hammering away at your login page. If left unchecked, this can put a tremendous strain on your server’s resources, similar to how a DoS attack works (more on this in part 5).
If you’re interested in digging into the topic, OWASP has a cool article that gives a few examples of different types of brute force attacks that you can check out here:
Hurray for Fail2Ban! What a fantastic piece of software this is. If you’re looking to prevent brute force attacks, keep bad bots off your server, conserve server resources, and even block dirty dirty comment spam (mark a comment as spam and Fail2Ban will ban that IP), Fail2Ban is fantastic.
We’re big fans of it here at GridPane, so much so that we have a direct integration with the excellent WP Fail2Ban plugin, which can now be activated with one click of a toggle. Additionally, we also have our own custom CLI for protecting wp-login.php and xmlrpc.php.
Learn more here: Configuring Fail2Ban to Prevent Brute Force Attacks
Fail2Ban looks for patterns of bad behaviour, including things like failed login attempts, user enumeration (where a bot probes your site for information such as usernames – brute force attacks are essentially impossible without knowing a valid username or email address), and then bans the offending IP addresses. It does this exceptionally well.
I’ve also used GridPane’s GP-CLI to set up a strict 1 failed login only rule, which means that 2 failed login attempts = banned for 24 hours. Harsh, but effective.
Nginx Rate Limiting
Out of the box, GridPane places a limit on the number of requests that can hit wp-login.php at the same time. This can be changed, but the default limit of 1 hit per second to protect against brute force attacks offers decent basic protection. This means the page can only be accessed 60 times per minute per IP address (and not, for example, 1000 times per minute by the same IP).
The Nginx rate limiting will simply drop the request with a 503 error code. 1 hit per second is fine for my purposes.
Summary: Brute Forcing These 2 Websites is Impossible
With the security setup that I’ve employed above, not to mention 2FA, a brute force attack on these websites would be a fruitless waste of time for any would-be attacker.
Part 5. DoS / DDoS Protection
DoS stands for “denial of service”. This is where an attacker uses a single internet connection to flood a server with TCP and UDP packets. These packets overwhelm the server’s resources, rendering it unable to serve your website’s visitors, possibly causing it to shut down entirely. The goal is to take you offline, denying access to your website or network.
A DDoS attack is one of the most common types of DoS attacks. A DDoS attack uses multiple internet connections to target a single system, making it easier to overwhelm and take a system offline, as well as making the attack itself more difficult to mitigate. Larger scale DDoS attacks can use thousands of connections to attack a server, and these often come from other compromised devices, also known as a botnet.
They can range anywhere from being a major pain in the ass to an absolute disaster depending on the business being targeted. For example, a serious DDoS attack against a giant ecommerce store could result in tens of thousands of dollars in lost sales.
Fail2Ban isn’t a cure by itself, but it can help to mitigate DoS and DDoS attacks by identifying bad behaviour and then blocking the IP addresses that are hammering the server. It’s a good first line of defence, but hackers/attackers are well aware of Fail2Ban and it’s unlikely that it will be able to provide enough protection against a massive attack.
Disable XML RPC
XML RPC is an old, outdated, and insecure method of remotely posting to a WordPress website. These websites don’t use it, so I’ve disabled it completely at the server level.
There are many plugins that can do this at the WordPress level, however, this doesn’t prevent hits reaching the server, and so it’s still possible to overwhelm a website by hammering xmlrpc.php if it’s not immediately dropped at the DNS or server level.
Disable Concatenating Load Scripts
WordPress has a feature that concatenates WP-Admin JS and CSS. While this may seem innocuous there are circumstances where this could be used to DoS a server, and in the age of HTTP/2 multiplexing, concatenating load-scripts isn’t really necessary.
GeoIP restriction is where you block traffic from specific countries so that traffic from those countries can’t access your website. It’s something I’ve considered implementing on these sites since the beginning, but with the bank being multinational and various people in different countries needing to review the site, I decided to leave it as the payoff vs the inconvenience of blocking/unblocking different countries on request for both myself and the client, wasn’t worth it.
If this was the bank’s primary marketing site, I would absolutely have employed GeoIP restrictions.
This can be accomplished in a couple of different ways. The server stack is Nginx, so I can use the GeoIP module, or I can use one of the free Cloudflare firewall rules, and block access to all but the countries I specify. I do actually have a firewall rule inside Cloudflare ready to go for this situation – it’s set up, just not active.
For most countries, this will stop DDoS attacks immediately, but you may be out of luck if the bulk of the attack is originating from your own country.
Cloudflare DDoS Protection
This is one of my favourite things about Cloudflare. If my websites come under attack, I can flip a switch inside my Cloudflare account and turn on “I’m under attack” mode. If all else fails, this option would be my final stand.
“Cloudflare Under Attack Mode performs additional security checks to help mitigate Layer 7 DDoS attacks. Validated users access your website and suspicious traffic is blocked. When enabled, visitors see an interstitial page… The “Checking your browser before accessing…” challenge determines whether to block or allow a visitor within 5 seconds.
It’s not perfect for website visitors, but’s far better than the alternative, and it’s a legitimately awesome, 100% free service that you can easily implement on any of your websites.
Further reading: https://blog.cloudflare.com/introducing-im-under-attack-mode/
Part 6. Preventing Injection and Cross-Site Scripting (XSS) Attacks
Next up is blocking injection attacks that aim to compromise a site with malware, and/or send malicious code to website visitors.
These are the type of attacks that most people imagine when we talk about malware, and the type of attacks we all dread. They’re terrible for our visitors, terrible for our reputation and SEO, and they’re a HUGE PIA to clean up. 10,000 websites get blacklisted by Google every single day because of these types of hacks. If your website gets blacklisted, say goodbye to 95% of your organic traffic.
Web Application Firewall (WAF)
A good WAF enhances every aspect of your website’s security, including everything we’ve already discussed.
GridPane comes with 3 Web Application Firewall integrations: –
- 6G WAF
- 7G WAF
6G and 7G are great for most small business websites, and 7G is my WAF of choice for all my other websites. They do a great job and they’re lightweight, and 7G even allows you to add your own custom rules.
ModSecurity is a sophisticated enterprise-level firewall and this is what I’m using on these two sites. On GridPane it comes pre-configured with the full OWASP foundation 3+ Core Ruleset (CRS) and is set to paranoia level 1 as the default.
I’ve set the paranoia level to #2 (of 4, 4 being the most strict), and the anomaly threshold is the default 10. ModSecurity is an entire topic in itself, just know that this is pushing the boundaries of extreme for these sites.
If you’re a GridPane client, you activate ModSec inside your account by opening up your customizer > Security tab, and clicking through to Modsec.
What does ModSecurity do?
ModSecurity is configured to protect sites from a wide array of attack vectors including:
- SQL Injection (SQLi)
- Cross-Site Scripting (XSS)
- Local File Inclusion (LFI)
- Remote File Inclusion (RFI)
- PHP Code Injection
- Java Code Injection
- Unix/Windows Shell Injection
- Session Fixation
- Scripting/Scanner/Bot Detection
- Metadata/Error Leakages
ModSecurity and Performance
ModSecurity is more resource-hungry than the 6G and 7G WAFs. This is due to the more comprehensive nature of how it detects patterns of bad behaviour. It’s probably overkill to be honest, but as server resources aren’t a concern for this project it’s another good reason to go with the best option available to me. The websites are also extremely simple, so unlike more complex websites where significant fine-tuning can be necessary, this wasn’t a concern.
Note: For most websites, 7G is what we’d recommend and what I use for all other websites that I manage.
The server is more than capable and the maximum concurrent visitors will be at most 10-20 at the same time, no dynamic requests (all cache, no PHP or MySQL processing), and our stack is extremely efficient. This server will never come close to being remotely stressed unless it gets DDoS’d, and in that case, I’ll be flipping on Cloudflare’s “I’m under attack” mode and employing GeoIP restrictions.
WordPress has a built-in mechanism to allow trackbacks (notifications on your posts that someone has linked to them). Unfortunately, trackbacks have, in the past, led to several MySQL injection vulnerabilities and if unguarded can lead to a lot of spam.
They’re also annoying. I’ve blocked them.
Disable PHP execution in the uploads, plugin, and theme directories
These 3 directories each need to be writable for your website to function properly. Your theme and plugins need their directories to be writable to upload and update, and your uploads folder needs to be writable so that you and other users can upload files to your website.
The problem here is that, while this is a necessity for your site, it means that hackers can exploit these directories by uploading malware to them. If this happens, and your directories also allow for PHP execution, then this malware can be executed and infect your site, and potentially your entire system if your server isn’t properly isolating each website.
Disabling PHP execution won’t prevent hackers from being able to inject PHP malware if your site has a vulnerability through either WordPress core, or a theme or plugin. However, it does mean that this malware won’t be able to execute once injected.
This is a major step towards preventing one of the most common types of security vulnerabilities, especially as plugin vulnerabilities are the leading cause of WordPress hacks.
Disabling PHP execution should be a part of your security setup and if you do have a plugin or theme that requires it, it may be worth contacting that plugins author and/or looking for an alternative solution.
GridPane automatically blocks requests to maliciously uploaded PHP files in the WordPress uploads and themes directories. We don’t do this in the plugins directory by default as some plugins require this to function correctly (which we highly disapprove of by the way…), but this is a simple task (especially on GridPane as it’s just clicking a toggle) and I’ve disabled PHP execution here as well.
Depending on your server configuration you may need to either edit your .htaccess file (Apache and OpenLiteSpeed), or add a deny directive in Nginx, or just use a plugin – most security plugins have this feature.
All GridPane websites are launched with security headers in place to ensure security vulnerabilities such as cross-site scripting and clickjacking are automatically prevented. This shuts down one of the biggest security vulnerabilities on all websites online today, WordPress or not.
I’ve also implemented a Content Security Policy (CSP). More on this in part 7.
Cloudflare DNS Firewall Rules
Cloudflare comes with some great features that can be enabled by turning on the orange clouds in the DNS page of your account. This includes some cool default firewall options as well as an extra 5 free custom firewall rules.
Normally I like to set up a firewall rule that restricts access to wp-login.php only via a specific query string or block access completely and login via SSO and/or Magic Links. However, for my editor colleagues’ benefit, I’ve kept this simple and will let Fail2Ban and 2FA keep the wp-login URLs secured.
My Cloudflare firewall settings are as follows: –
- Security level: Medium
- Bot Fight Mode: On
- Challenge Passage: Default
- Browser Integrity Check: On
- Privacy Pass Support: Default
Medium Security “challenges both moderate threat visitors and the most threatening visitors”.
Bot Fight Mode “challenges requests matching patterns of known bots before they can access your site.”
The Browser Integrity Check looks for HTTP headers commonly abused by spammers and challenges visitors without a user agent (or non-standard user agents) to block abusive bot traffic.
Part 7. Content-Security-Policy (CSP)
A Content Security Policy (CSP) is a set of instructions for browsers to follow when loading up your website, delivered as part of your website’s HTTP Response Header.
This is a widely supported security standard that can help you prevent injection-based attacks by fine-tuning what resources a browser is allowed to load on your website.
It specifies exactly where the browser is allowed to load resources from, and it’s an effective way of blocking anything malicious loading from elsewhere should instructions to do so somehow make their way into your website.
While there’s now already a lot of protection in place to prevent Cross-site Scripting (XSS), the single most effective way to stop this type of attack is with a Content Security Policy (CSP).
A browser simply does what it’s told, and has no idea whether a script is malicious in nature or not. Implementing a CSP allows you to set rules for exactly where things like JS, CSS, fonts, or pretty much anything at all, are and aren’t allowed to load from.
GridPane makes it easy to activate a default CSP with GP-CLI. You can run a single command to create a CSP configuration file, and then edit it as per your needs. Creating an effective and secure CSP is no simple task though. It’s important to take the time to learn what they do, how they work, and then thoroughly test them in a staging environment to ensure that you don’t accidentally break your live websites.
This is another big topic in its own right. If you’d like to begin learning more, please check out our Knowledge Base article here for an introduction:
Part 8. Security Monitoring
When it comes to keeping a website secure, there’s not much any security plugin can offer at this point with everything that’s already now in place. Most of what these plugins do is essentially a band-aid for insecure web hosting.
However, there’s still a couple of things that I personally wanted to implement, which some security plugins can assist with. These were: –
- WordPress specific malware scanning
- File integrity monitoring
- Security alerts
Sucuri (The Free Version)
For this, I choose the free Sucuri plugin, and while it doesn’t really provide any additional protection, it acts as my website monitoring tool, which is still a valuable addition. It also takes just 2-3 minutes to set up.
Sucuri’s SiteCheck malware scanning feature is an external tool so its scope is limited (it can’t do any server-side scanning), but it will at least let me know if any malware were to show up on the front-end of either website.
Sucuri SiteCheck, scans for: –
- Blacklist Status
- Website Errors
- Out-of-Date Software
- Security Anomalies
The core integrity checks will also alert me if any WordPress core files are modified, which is a pretty firm indication of a hack, and will allow me to check those files.
Sucuri also keeps me informed via email for specific security-related events. I’ve adjusted my settings to receive email alerts for: –
- If Sucuri settings are changed
- Successful login attempts
- Core integrity checks
- When website settings are updated
- When a file is modified with the theme/plugin editor
- When a plugin is deactivated
That all keeps me pretty well informed and lets me know if anything requires my attention.
I should note here that on its own, the free Sucuri plugin is extremely limited and doesn’t do enough to keep the average website safe. If you wanted to use it for more than just a variation of the above you would need at least their $200/year per site plan for legitimate protection.
Maldet and ClamAV Malware Scanning
GridPane Developer accounts include access to Maldet and ClamAV. This software scans servers looking for signatures of thousands of instances of known malware, and then logs the results as mini-reports.
It’s not a malware cleaner, but it is a very handy tool for the security toolbox if you’re a GridPane client.
Our integration sends out slack notifications with details of these scans, and these take place once a day.
If you’d like to learn more about Maldet and ClamAV, check out our Knowledge Base article here:
I monitor the uptime of all the websites I manage using Better Uptime. Any uptime monitoring tool will do, but if either of these websites goes offline for more than 3 minutes, I’ll be alerted and then can begin to deal with whatever the problem is, be it security or otherwise.
Whatever the reason, website downtime is going to be displeasing to clients, so this is important for your business in general. The reason I’m using Better Uptime is simply because they had a great deal on AppSumo. I’ve been very satisfied with their service thus far, but there are plenty of decent tools to get the job done.
Part 9. Emergency Action Plan
Backups, Backups, and more Backups
To quote Patrick, our CEO: “Good backups are like insurance… if insurance covered everything, cost practically nothing, and always paid out. They are the single most cost-effective investment in your online presence that you will ever make.”
I couldn’t agree more. I’ve seen too many situations where simply having just 1 available backup would have saved someone’s ass. But alas, having zero backups appears to be far more common than having even just 1.
I back these websites up at: –
- The IaaS provider level with snapshots (full server backups) of the server.
- The server-level with incremental local backups of each website every single hour allows me to roll the websites back in time in minutes.
- Remote backups using the All in One WP Migration Backblaze B2 extension
- I use our new Backup system (currently in beta) to back these sites up to Amazon S3 once per week.
- I have a full backup of the original sites on my laptop
If anything were to happen to these websites – either my editor colleague accidentally deleted all the content, or the server was corrupted at the data centre (extremely rare), or whatever the case may be – I can easily temporarily suspend the site, then get them live again in 15 minutes or less once I’m aware there’s an issue. Good as new.
If there was a security issue, I’d also immediately update everything that needs updating, remove all accounts except for my own, and I’d probably also install the free version of MalCare and have the sites thoroughly scanned by their free service, and maybe Wordfence too. Then I’d take things from there.
Part 10. Launch and Maintain
Security is never “done”.
According to Sucuri, In 2019, 56% of hacked websites were outdated at the point of infection.
Once live, basic maintenance is required to keep these websites secure. All that means is regular WordPress core, theme, and plugin updates. For most of the clients I still personally host I do this around once every 2 weeks. For these two websites, I run updates at least once per week. As simple as this is, it’s one of the most effective ways to keep your websites secure.
When we release UpdateSafely 2.0 out of beta, I’ll have that automatically take care of this for me.
There’s always more than can be done, such as: –
- Automatically backing up server logs to a secure off-server location
- GeoIP blocking visitors from all but the country the bank operates in
- Integrating Fail2Ban and Cloudflare to work together
- Move or obscure the default wp-login.php (sure, this is security through obscurity, but hackers can’t abuse what they can’t find)
- Add HTTP authentication to wp-login.php
- Limiting admin access to specific IP addresses
- Adding HTTP Authentication to the /wp-admin area
- Remove password-based login altogether – something I’ve been leaning more and more towards and will likely start rolling out across all the sites I manage in 2021
- Change the database table prefix
- Disable theme and plugin file editing from inside the WordPress dashboard
These may be useful depending on your hosting and security setup, and the type of sites you manage. Or they may be overkill.
All of the typical security “suite” plugins that most people think about when we talk about security plugins have their pros and cons. This includes all the well-known names like Sucuri, iThemes, Wordfence, and MalCare etc.
I personally used Wordfence free for most of my career, but I no longer use it. We do, however, have some very capable and experienced developers on the platform who would highly recommend Wordfence. We also have some who hate it.
We have clients who never use a security suite plugin and think they’re stupid.
Some people will love whichever option you choose, many others will not. Figure out what boxes you need to check, then choose the one that ticks the most.
To answer the real question you may be wondering about…
Perfect Security Does Not Exist
Due to the ever-changing nature of WordPress (and all CMS platforms), the code base of our websites regularly changes, and it’s just not possible to guarantee 100% protection.
I can implement a comprehensive security strategy, and use good judgement when choosing themes and plugins, but I can’t prevent a hack occurring via something I can’t foresee or control, such as a zero-day vulnerability in a plugin that has previously had a stellar track record.
Fortunately, these things are rare, and implementing all of the security measures outlined in this article, plus choosing themes and plugins from reputable developers (who I trust will fix issues swiftly and competently should they arise), and that are actively maintained, will help us mitigate the damage that most of these types of potential vulnerabilities can cause.
That’s all Folks!
This details every step I’ve taken to secure these two WordPress websites, along with a few extra considerations. I hope you’ll find it to be a useful roadmap for securing your own websites.
While you’re here:
- What do you do to secure the WordPress sites that you look after?
- What would you have done differently?
- What’s your favourite security plugin and why?
Let us know below!